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Dacian Prisoners, Arch of Constantine. Detail View - Dacian prisoners, North Facade Reliefs of ...
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Dacian Prisoners, Arch of Constantine. Detail View - Dacian prisoners, North Facade Reliefs of Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy. The arch celebrates the triumph of the emperor Constantine over Maxentius, which took place on October 28, 312 CE, following the victorious battle at the Milvian ... Dacian Prisoners, Arch of Constantine. Detail View - Dacian prisoners, North Facade Reliefs of Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy. The arch celebrates the triumph of the emperor Constantine over Maxentius, which took place on October 28, 312 CE, following the victorious battle at the Milvian Bridge. •
























• (Image by Colosseum Rome Tickets)
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The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229 CE), which for many historians was merely the delayed final chapter ...
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The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229 CE), which for many historians was merely the delayed final chapter of the unsuccessful Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE), finally saw the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220-1250 CE) arrive with his army in the Holy Land, as he had long vowed to do. Jerusalem ... The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229 CE), which for many historians was merely the delayed final chapter of the unsuccessful Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE), finally saw the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220-1250 CE) arrive with his army in the Holy Land, as he had long vowed to do.

Jerusalem had been out of Christian hands since 1187 CE but was finally won back from Muslim control thanks to Frederick’s skills at diplomacy rather than any actual fighting. In February 1229 CE a treaty was agreed with the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, al-Kamil (r. 1218-1238 CE), to hand over the Holy City to Christian rule. Thus, the Sixth Crusade managed to achieve by peaceful means what four bloody previous Crusades had failed to do.




















• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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We're honoured to be partners with UNESCO and very excited to announce that we've helped organise ...
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We're honoured to be partners with UNESCO and very excited to announce that we've helped organise a monumental event taking place this weekend in Paris, France. After 70 years of of service to the heritage of humanity, UNESCO will open its doors to the general public on the 15th and 16th of ... We're honoured to be partners with UNESCO and very excited to announce that we've helped organise a monumental event taking place this weekend in Paris, France. After 70 years of of service to the heritage of humanity, UNESCO will open its doors to the general public on the 15th and 16th of September, from 11 am - 6 pm for the European Heritage Days. This event highlights the exciting intersection between digital technology and cultural heritage.

You can find more information in our Instagram story and highlights.
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Vinland (Old Norse Vínland, ‘Wine Land’) is the name given to the lands explored and briefly settled ...
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Vinland (Old Norse Vínland, ‘Wine Land’) is the name given to the lands explored and briefly settled by Norse Vikings in North America around 1000 CE, particularly referring to Newfoundland, where a Viking site known as L’Anse aux Meadows was uncovered in the 1960s CE, and the Gulf ... Vinland (Old Norse Vínland, ‘Wine Land’) is the name given to the lands explored and briefly settled by Norse Vikings in North America around 1000 CE, particularly referring to Newfoundland, where a Viking site known as L’Anse aux Meadows was uncovered in the 1960s CE, and the Gulf of St Lawrence. The term Vinland is sometimes used to indicate all areas frequented by the Vikings in North America, in which case it also stretches to Labrador, Baffin Island, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, all in present-day Canada.

Vinland was hailed by the Norse as a land of riches, allegedly first set foot on by Leif Erikson, son of Erik the Red who founded the first Norse settlement of Greenland, and it became the objective of various expeditions seeking to bring its produce, timber, and furs back to Greenland and Iceland. The area was not uninhabited, however; contact with natives, besides being the first known instance of a meeting of people from Europe and America, was seemingly not always smooth, and together with the distance (some 3200 km) between Vinland and Greenland this probably led the Norse to conclude that these riches were not worth the extreme hassle. The Norse settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland, which likely functioned as a sort of gateway from which trips were undertaken to other areas, seems to have been in use for only about a decade before it was purposefully abandoned. Occasional visits to the Labrador region in order to gather wood seem to have continued, though. •



























• (Article by Emma Groeneveld || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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We're excited to share our partnership with @timepassport with this new iOS app that lets you experience ...
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We're excited to share our partnership with @timepassport with this new iOS app that lets you experience the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in Augmented Reality. For a limited time, this app will be free, so download yours now! (The link will be in our Instagram stories and highlights). We're excited to share our partnership with @timepassport with this new iOS app that lets you experience the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in Augmented Reality.

For a limited time, this app will be free, so download yours now! (The link will be in our Instagram stories and highlights).
The Fushimi Inari Shrine near Kyoto (Heiankyo) is the largest and most important shrine dedicated ...
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The Fushimi Inari Shrine near Kyoto (Heiankyo) is the largest and most important shrine dedicated to Inari, the Shinto god of rice and prosperity. It is famous for the large number of red gates (torii) at the site. The shrine was founded in 711 CE by the Hata clan and moved from its original ... The Fushimi Inari Shrine near Kyoto (Heiankyo) is the largest and most important shrine dedicated to Inari, the Shinto god of rice and prosperity. It is famous for the large number of red gates (torii) at the site. The shrine was founded in 711 CE by the Hata clan and moved from its original location on Mt. Inari to its present location near Kyoto in the 9th century CE.























• • (Image by James Blake Wiener)
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This is one of just 4 complete helmets to survive from Anglo-Saxon England. It has been painstakingly ...
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This is one of just 4 complete helmets to survive from Anglo-Saxon England. It has been painstakingly reconstructed from the shattered condition in which it was found. The Sutton Hoo Helmet's exceptional survival and haunting appearance have made it an icon of the early medieval period. ... This is one of just 4 complete helmets to survive from Anglo-Saxon England. It has been painstakingly reconstructed from the shattered condition in which it was found. The Sutton Hoo Helmet's exceptional survival and haunting appearance have made it an icon of the early medieval period. The helmet consists of an iron cap with a crest, neck guard, cheek-pieces, and face mask. It was originally covered with tinned copper alloy panels and decorated with animal and warrior motifs.

The scarcity of surviving Anglo-Saxon helmets indicates that only those of great status could posses them. From Sutton Hoo, Ship-burial Mound 1, England. Late 500s to early 600 CE. The British Museum, London. Donated by Mrs. Edith M. Pretty in 1939.























• (Image by Osama S.M. Amin)
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The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) with the objective, ...
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The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) with the objective, like previous crusades, of recapturing Jerusalem from Muslim control; only this time the strategy was to weaken the enemy by first attacking Muslim-held cities in North Africa ... The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) with the objective, like previous crusades, of recapturing Jerusalem from Muslim control; only this time the strategy was to weaken the enemy by first attacking Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt, then controlled by the Ayyubid dynasty (1174-1250 CE). The idea that Egypt would be an easier target than Jerusalem proved to be mistaken, and the campaign was not successful.
The Crusader army, although eventually conquering Damietta, was beset by leadership squabbles and a lack of sufficient men, equipment, and suitable ships to deal with the local geography. Defeated on the banks of the Nile, the Crusaders returned home, once again, with very little to show for their efforts. •























• (Article by Mark Cartwright)
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The Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete (c. 1500 BCE). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...
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The Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete (c. 1500 BCE). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Mark Cartwright) The Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete (c. 1500 BCE).





















• (Image by Mark Cartwright)
Krak des Chevaliers (also spelt Cracs des Chevaliers, and known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad) is a ...
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Krak des Chevaliers (also spelt Cracs des Chevaliers, and known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad) is a castle in Syria originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE but acquired and extensively rebuilt by the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE. Considered virtually impregnable, it was the ... Krak des Chevaliers (also spelt Cracs des Chevaliers, and known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad) is a castle in Syria originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE but acquired and extensively rebuilt by the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE. Considered virtually impregnable, it was the largest Crusader castle in the Middle East and a bulwark against the expansion of the Muslim states during the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The castle is today listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site.

The castle, located on a natural citadel near the coast of southern Syria between Tartus and Tripoli, was originally built by the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE on the site of a much earlier fortification. After the defeat of the Emir, the stronghold was given to the medieval military order the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE by Raymond II of Tripoli (r. 1137-1152 CE), probably so that it could be sufficiently manned and thus provide a useful cover to the eastern frontier of the County of Tripoli, one of the Crusader-created states which comprised the Latin East in the Levant. The castle, one of around 25, was one of the most important held by the Hospitallers, whose headquarters was at Jerusalem and then from 1191 CE at Acre.






















• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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The Curia. The meeting house of the Senate of Rome. The present building was begun by Julius Caesar in ...
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The Curia. The meeting house of the Senate of Rome. The present building was begun by Julius Caesar in 44 BCE and later completed and dedicated by Augustus Caesar around 29 BCE. • ° • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Chris Ludwig) The Curia. The meeting house of the Senate of Rome. The present building was begun by Julius Caesar in 44 BCE and later completed and dedicated by Augustus Caesar around 29 BCE. •
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• (Image by Chris Ludwig)
The art produced by the people of Thrace, as indicated by the many precious objects found in Thracian ...
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The art produced by the people of Thrace, as indicated by the many precious objects found in Thracian tombs dating from the Bronze Age onwards, was, like the culture itself, a mix of indigenous ideas and foreign influences. Although it can be difficult to distinguish local and imported high-value ... The art produced by the people of Thrace, as indicated by the many precious objects found in Thracian tombs dating from the Bronze Age onwards, was, like the culture itself, a mix of indigenous ideas and foreign influences. Although it can be difficult to distinguish local and imported high-value objects, typical features of Thracian art are the use of brightly coloured wall paintings to decorate tombs, the widespread use of metal vessels, especially for the burial of the deceased's remains, and intricately manufactured jewellery pieces in precious metals. Finally, there was a particular appreciation for Greek black-figure pottery, with many of the finest examples of that genre surviving in Thracian tombs.

The Thracian people were one of the oldest inhabitants of the vast territories of Eastern and Southeastern Europe during the late second and first millennia BCE, until they were gradually conquered by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Sadly, they failed to develop their own literacy, thus they left no written record of their history. Most of our knowledge of them nowadays is derived from Greek and Roman sources, many of which are of questionable accuracy, and more importantly from archaeological remains still found today in Thracian territories.























• • (Article and photos by Thrace Foundation)
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Single-handed spouted jug from "Tumulus K.III" at Gordion (Gordium), in modern-day Turkey . Mid-8th ...
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Single-handed spouted jug from "Tumulus K.III" at Gordion (Gordium), in modern-day Turkey . Mid-8th century to early 7th century BCE. (Museum of Archaeology , Istanbul, Turkey). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Osama S.M. Amin) Single-handed spouted jug from "Tumulus K.III" at Gordion (Gordium), in modern-day Turkey . Mid-8th century to early 7th century BCE. (Museum of Archaeology , Istanbul, Turkey). •






















• (Image by Osama S.M. Amin)
The so-called Children’s Crusade of 1212 CE, was a popular, double religious movement led by a French ...
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The so-called Children’s Crusade of 1212 CE, was a popular, double religious movement led by a French youth, Stephen of Cloyes, and a German boy, Nicholas of Cologne, who gathered two armies of perhaps 20,000 children, adolescents, and adults with the hopelessly optimistic objective ... The so-called Children’s Crusade of 1212 CE, was a popular, double religious movement led by a French youth, Stephen of Cloyes, and a German boy, Nicholas of Cologne, who gathered two armies of perhaps 20,000 children, adolescents, and adults with the hopelessly optimistic objective of bettering the failures of the professional Crusader armies and capturing Jerusalem for Christendom. Travelling across Europe, the would-be Crusaders perhaps reached Genoa but had no funds to pay for their passage to the Levant.

While some participants simply returned home, a large number were sold into slavery, according to the legend. Whatever the exact events of the confused history of the ‘Children’s Crusade’, the episode illustrates that there was a popular sympathy for the Crusade movement amongst the common people and it was not just nobles and knights who felt compelled to take the cross and defend Christians and their sacred places in the Holy Land during the Middle Ages.
























• • (Article by Mark Cartwright)
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Casas Grandes or Paquimé was a major pre-Columbian city that flourished due to its extensive ...
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Casas Grandes or Paquimé was a major pre-Columbian city that flourished due to its extensive trading networks between c. 1150/1200-1450 CE in the northwest of present-day Chihuahua, Mexico. Casas Grandes is one of the largest and most important archaeological sites in the Oasisamerica ... Casas Grandes or Paquimé was a major pre-Columbian city that flourished due to its extensive trading networks between c. 1150/1200-1450 CE in the northwest of present-day Chihuahua, Mexico. Casas Grandes is one of the largest and most important archaeological sites in the Oasisamerica region, and the city played a key role in the transmission of knowledge and goods between the cultures of the Pre-Columbian desert southwest and those of Mesoamerica.

The construction of Casas Grandes is widely attributed to people who demonstrated the marked characteristics of the Mogollon culture, which existed from c. 200-1450 CE in what is now southern New Mexico and Arizona as well as northern Mexico, but a lively scholarly debate continues as to the exact ethnicities and origins of the peoples who lived in and founded Casas Grandes. Although only 20% of the site has been excavated and surveyed, the UNESCO designated Casas Grandes as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998 CE.



























• (Article by James Blake Wiener || Photos belong to their respective owners).
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A Parian marble statue of Aphrodite, from Baiai in southern Italy. 2nd century CE copy of a Greek original ...
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A Parian marble statue of Aphrodite, from Baiai in southern Italy. 2nd century CE copy of a Greek original of the 4th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Mark Cartwright) A Parian marble statue of Aphrodite, from Baiai in southern Italy. 2nd century CE copy of a Greek original of the 4th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).




















• (Image by Mark Cartwright)
Ragnar Lothbrok (Old Norse Ragnarr Loðbrók, also anglicised as Ragnar Lodbrok), whose epithet ...
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Ragnar Lothbrok (Old Norse Ragnarr Loðbrók, also anglicised as Ragnar Lodbrok), whose epithet means ‘Hairy-breeches’ or ‘Shaggy-breeches’, was a legendary Viking king, with Old Norse sagas, poetry, and medieval Latin sources telling of his accomplishments in Scandinavia, Francia, and ... Ragnar Lothbrok (Old Norse Ragnarr Loðbrók, also anglicised as Ragnar Lodbrok), whose epithet means ‘Hairy-breeches’ or ‘Shaggy-breeches’, was a legendary Viking king, with Old Norse sagas, poetry, and medieval Latin sources telling of his accomplishments in Scandinavia, Francia, and Anglo-Saxon England during the 9th century CE. Commonly occurring elements in these stories are his marriages to Thora and Aslaug, as well as his fathering of many famous sons including Ivar the Boneless, Björn Ironside, Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye, Hvitserk, and Ubbe. A possible third wife, Lagertha, only appears in the 13th-century CE Gesta Danorum, a work on Danish history.

Perhaps the most iconic titbits of his legend are Ragnar’s successful fight with a dragon – for which he fashioned his defining shaggy breeches as protection – and his slightly overconfident invasion of England with just two ships, which ended with him being captured by King Ælla of Northumbria (r. c. 866 CE), who had him killed by throwing him into a snake-pit. Whereas Ragnar’s own historicity is highly disputed, at least some of his alleged sons seem to match actual historical figures who existed outside of legend, too. •





















• (Article by Emma Groeneveld)
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The white horse of Uffington, a Bronze Age carving into the chalk hills in Oxfordshire, England. ...
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The white horse of Uffington, a Bronze Age carving into the chalk hills in Oxfordshire, England. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by superdove) The white horse of Uffington, a Bronze Age carving into the chalk hills in Oxfordshire, England. •



















• (Image by superdove)
The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third ...
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The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the Sultan Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE), ... The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the Sultan Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE), lasted from 1189 to 1191 CE.

Thanks to their impressive siege weapons and tactics, and the leadership of such men as Richard I of England (r. 1189-1199 CE), the Crusaders captured the city on 12 July 1191 CE. It was a morale-boosting victory, but Saladin’s army remained largely intact, and the two sides clashed again two months later at Arsuf. Once again the Crusaders won the battle but, with each new clash, the western armies were depleted so that the real goal of retaking Jerusalem slipped ever further from their grasp.
























• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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Electoral Notices, Pompeii. Many of the buildings in the Roman town of Pompeii, preserved following ...
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Electoral Notices, Pompeii. Many of the buildings in the Roman town of Pompeii, preserved following the burial of the town by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE, were covered in electoral notices and graffiti on all manner of subjects. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ... Electoral Notices, Pompeii. Many of the buildings in the Roman town of Pompeii, preserved following the burial of the town by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE, were covered in electoral notices and graffiti on all manner of subjects.





























• (Image by Katharine Sykes)
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The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman ...
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The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction of the Second Temple, and the Kitos War (115-117 ... The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction of the Second Temple, and the Kitos War (115-117 CE). In many ways, the Bar Kochba Revolt differed markedly from its predecessors. For the first time, the Jews presented a united front against Roman forces and fought underneath a single charismatic leader, the eponymous Simon Bar Kochba (also given as Shimon Bar-Cochba, Bar Kokhba, Ben-Cozba, Cosiba or Coziba). It was marked as well by strong religious passions, with many apparently believing that Bar Kochba was the promised messiah who would lead the Jewish people to final victory against their enemies.

In its initial stages, the revolt was surprisingly successful and may have resulted in the destruction of an entire Roman legion. It is possible that the rebels regained control of the city of Jerusalem, and they must have held large portions of ancient Judea. The Romans, however, regrouped and adopted a scorched-earth strategy that ultimately extirpated the rebels and laid waste to the country. The war shattered Judean society and led to far-reaching demographic and political changes, with the majority of the Jewish population of the province killed, enslaved, or exiled, and their national hopes definitively crushed. •



















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• (Article by Benjamin Kerstein || Photos belong to their respective)
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The Temple of Hathor at Dendera, Egypt, a famous center of her cult. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...
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The Temple of Hathor at Dendera, Egypt, a famous center of her cult. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Steve F-E-Cameron) The Temple of Hathor at Dendera, Egypt, a famous center of her cult. •


















• • (Image by Steve F-E-Cameron)
Saladin (1137-93 CE) was the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE) who shocked the western ...
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Saladin (1137-93 CE) was the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE) who shocked the western world by defeating an army of the Crusader states at the Battle of Hattin and then capturing Jerusalem in 1187 CE. By unifying the Muslim Near East from Egypt to Arabia through a potent ... Saladin (1137-93 CE) was the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE) who shocked the western world by defeating an army of the Crusader states at the Battle of Hattin and then capturing Jerusalem in 1187 CE. By unifying the Muslim Near East from Egypt to Arabia through a potent mix of warfare, diplomacy and the promise of holy war, Saladin all but destroyed the states of the Latin East in the Levant and successfully repelled the Third Crusade (1187-1192 CE). Saladin’s skills in warfare and politics, as well as his personal qualities of generosity and chivalry, resulted in him being eulogised by both Christian and Muslim writers so that he has become one of the most famous figures of the Middle Ages and the subject of countless literary works ever since his death in his favourite gardens of Damascus in 1193 CE.






















• (Article by Mark Cartwright)
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The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania in Tipaza, Algeria was built in 3 BCE by Juba II of Numidia (c. 50 ...
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The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania in Tipaza, Algeria was built in 3 BCE by Juba II of Numidia (c. 50 BCE c. 25 CE) and his wife Cleopatra Selene II (40 BCE c. 5 BCE). This tomb may have been the final resting place of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II, although their remains have not been found. The ... The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania in Tipaza, Algeria was built in 3 BCE by Juba II of Numidia (c. 50 BCE c. 25 CE) and his wife Cleopatra Selene II (40 BCE c. 5 BCE). This tomb may have been the final resting place of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II, although their remains have not been found.

The architectural design of the mausoleum is reminiscent of other Numidian tombs, although it was also inspired by the similar Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome which was constructed around 27 BCE. The hilltop mausoleum is built on a circular base and was originally topped with either a pyramid or cone. The monument was originally roughly 60 meters in diameter and 40 meters tall, although damage has reduced its height to around 30 meters. •





















• (Image by Lamine Bensaou)
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Kos (Cos) is a Greek island in the south-east Aegean (ancient) Sporades group which prospered ...
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Kos (Cos) is a Greek island in the south-east Aegean (ancient) Sporades group which prospered in antiquity due to its location on trade routes between Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, and Anatolia. Settled from the Bronze Age, the island was controlled by a long list of powers over the centuries. ... Kos (Cos) is a Greek island in the south-east Aegean (ancient) Sporades group which prospered in antiquity due to its location on trade routes between Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, and Anatolia. Settled from the Bronze Age, the island was controlled by a long list of powers over the centuries. One of Kos’ most famous sons was the celebrated physician Hippocrates, who created a school of medicine on the island in the 5th century BCE. Kos particularly flourished both politically and culturally in the 4th century BCE, after which it became a free city as part of the Roman Empire.

In Greek mythology, Eurypylos is mentioned as the king of Kos and contributor to the Greek army involved in the Trojan War of Homer’s Iliad. In the same book we are told that Hera removed Hercules to the island when he was trying to return home after his sacking of Troy. The first archaeological evidence of settlements on Kos confirms an even earlier Bronze Age presence (3rd millennium BCE) with burial jars and metal objects such as daggers being excavated. Middle Bronze Age finds also demonstrate an influence from Minoan Crete and contact with Egypt.



















• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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A ceremonial knife (or tumi) from the Lambayeque civilization (Sican) of northern Peru, 9-11th ...
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A ceremonial knife (or tumi) from the Lambayeque civilization (Sican) of northern Peru, 9-11th century CE. Gold and silver inlaid with turquoise. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by the Metropolitan Museum of Art) A ceremonial knife (or tumi) from the Lambayeque civilization (Sican) of northern Peru, 9-11th century CE. Gold and silver inlaid with turquoise.



















• (Image © by the Metropolitan Museum of Art)
The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim ...
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The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of ‘the Kings' Crusade’. The three leaders were: Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany and Holy Roman ... The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of ‘the Kings' Crusade’. The three leaders were: Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1152-1190 CE), Philip II of France (r. 1180-1223 CE) and Richard I 'the Lionhearted' of England (r. 1189-1199 CE). Despite this pedigree, the campaign was a failure, the Holy City never even being attacked.

Along the way, there were some victories, notably the capture of Acre and the battle of Arsuf. Fizzling out with a whimper, the Crusade collapsed because, by the time they arrived at their objective, the western leaders found themselves without sufficient men or resources to resist the still intact armies of Saladin. Although a compromise was negotiated with access for pilgrims to Jerusalem permitted and a Christian foothold maintained in the Middle East, another attempt to take the Holy City would shortly be made the original objective of the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204 CE. •

















• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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Late Roman Ridge Helmet A 4th century CE Roman parade helmet made of iron, silver and gold , and decorated ...
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Late Roman Ridge Helmet A 4th century CE Roman parade helmet made of iron, silver and gold , and decorated with glass gems, found in Berkasovo, Serbia. The photo was taken at the exhibition 'Treasures and Emperors. The Splendour of Roman Serbia' in Aquileia , Italy (11 March - 3 June 2018). ... Late Roman Ridge Helmet
A 4th century CE Roman parade helmet made of iron, silver and gold , and decorated with glass gems, found in Berkasovo, Serbia. The photo was taken at the exhibition 'Treasures and Emperors. The Splendour of Roman Serbia' in Aquileia , Italy (11 March - 3 June 2018). The Helmet was on loan from the Museum of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, Serbia. •























• (Image credit goes to Carole Raddato (@followinghadrian)
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Jordan is a country in the Near East bordered by Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia which ...
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Jordan is a country in the Near East bordered by Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia which was part of the Land of Canaan in ancient times. The country is named for the River Jordan which flows between modern-day Jordan and Israel and whose name means "to descend" or "flow downwards". ... Jordan is a country in the Near East bordered by Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia which was part of the Land of Canaan in ancient times. The country is named for the River Jordan which flows between modern-day Jordan and Israel and whose name means "to descend" or "flow downwards". The region has a long history as an important trade center for every major empire from the ancient world to the present age (the Akkadian to the Ottoman empire) and numerous sites in the country are mentioned throughout the Bible.

Jordan, formally known as The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, has been an independent nation since 1946 CE after thousands of years as a vassal state of foreign empires and European powers and has developed into one of the most stable and resourceful nations in the Near East. Its capital city, Amman, is considered one of the most prosperous in the world and a popular destination for tourists. The history of the region is vast, going back more than 8,000 years, and encompassing the tale of the rise and fall of empires and the evolution of the modern state.






















• (Article by Joshua J. Mark || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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Luoyang (aka Loyang) was the capital city of many ancient Chinese dynasties, a position it frequently ...
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Luoyang (aka Loyang) was the capital city of many ancient Chinese dynasties, a position it frequently swapped with Chang’an, usually whenever there was a change of dynasty. Located in the Henan province in the eastern part of China’s central plain, the city was noted for its fine buildings, ... Luoyang (aka Loyang) was the capital city of many ancient Chinese dynasties, a position it frequently swapped with Chang’an, usually whenever there was a change of dynasty. Located in the Henan province in the eastern part of China’s central plain, the city was noted for its fine buildings, pleasure parks, and literary culture, particularly regarding Confucian scholarship.
The city of Luoyang is located at the confluence of the Luo and Yi Rivers in the Henan province of eastern-central China. Luoyang was thus perfectly positioned to control land and water transport throughout the region, an important fact considering tax collected from across the Chinese empire was usually in the form of grain.

Consequently, Luoyang was always an important city throughout China’s history, but it shone particularly when it was made capital of the Eastern Zhou (770-255 BCE), as capital again during the latter part of the Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE), and as the seat of the Northern Wei government (386-535 CE). Luoyang was one of the three official capitals during the brief Sui dynasty (581-618 CE), flourished as the second city and Eastern capital of the Tang dynasty (618-907 CE), and was even briefly the capital of the new and ultimately unrealised Zhou dynastydeclared by Empress Wu Zetian in 690 CE.























• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photo by Gisling)
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West facade of the Parthenon, Athens, 5th century BCE. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...
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West facade of the Parthenon, Athens, 5th century BCE. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Mark Cartwright) West facade of the Parthenon, Athens, 5th century BCE.
























• (Image by Mark Cartwright)
The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full ...
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The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full name of ‘Knights of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem’. After their base was relocated to Rhodes in the early 14th century CE, the order’s members were often called the Knights ... The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full name of ‘Knights of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem’. After their base was relocated to Rhodes in the early 14th century CE, the order’s members were often called the Knights of Rhodes and when they moved again in 1530 CE, this time to Malta, they were subsequently known as the Knights of Malta. The original purpose of the order was to provide aid and medical care to Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land, but it soon became a military order which acquired extensive territories in Europe and whose knights made significant contributions to the Crusades in Iberia and the Middle East.

The Knights Hospitaller, identified by their distinctive white eight-pointed cross on a black background, participated in many other campaigns besides, notably those involving the Byzantine Empire. The order still exists today in several modified forms in many countries worldwide, ranging from the Roman Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Saint John to the volunteer Saint John’s Ambulance Brigade.


























• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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On this day in 79 CE: Mount Vesuvius erupts. The cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae are ...
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On this day in 79 CE: Mount Vesuvius erupts. The cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae are buried in volcanic ash and lost until their rediscovery in 1748 CE. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by mchen007) On this day in 79 CE: Mount Vesuvius erupts. The cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae are buried in volcanic ash and lost until their rediscovery in 1748 CE. •




















• (Image © by mchen007)
Constantine X Doukas was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067 CE. During his reign, ...
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Constantine X Doukas was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067 CE. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire was attacked by emerging enemies on all sides, including the Normans in Italy and the Seljuk Turks in Armenia and Anatolia. Constantine’s policies isolated ... Constantine X Doukas was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067 CE. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire was attacked by emerging enemies on all sides, including the Normans in Italy and the Seljuk Turks in Armenia and Anatolia. Constantine’s policies isolated the Monophysite Armenians, downsized the army at the worst possible moment, and contributed to the general decline of Byzantium during the second half of the 11th century CE. Although Constantine was a poor emperor, it was his successors who would have to bear his unhelpful legacy.

Constantine was from a powerful landed family in Anatolia and was connected through marriage to other leading Byzantine families. For example, he was married to Eudokia Makrembolitissa, the niece of Michael Keroularios, the Patriarch of Constantinople. Constantine had been imprisoned by John the Orphanotrophus, the effective power behind the throne, back during the reign of Michael IV the Paphlagonian (r. 1034-1041 CE) for supporting a suspected rebel. However, Constantine disappeared from the historical record for the next two decades, which saw the final end of the ruling Macedonian Dynasty in 1056 CE and the emergence of a period of uncertainty as to who would rule Byzantium•





















• • (Article by Michael Goodyear || Photo by Classical Numismatic Group)
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The Temple of the Moon at Teotihuacan, Mexico, c. 150 CE. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...
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The Temple of the Moon at Teotihuacan, Mexico, c. 150 CE. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Alejandro Ocaña) The Temple of the Moon at Teotihuacan, Mexico, c. 150 CE.




























• (Image by Alejandro Ocaña)
The siege of Damascus in 1148 CE was the final act of the Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE). Lasting ...
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The siege of Damascus in 1148 CE was the final act of the Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE). Lasting a mere four days from 24 to 28 July, the siege by a combined western European army was not successful, and the Crusade petered out with its leaders returning home more bitter and angry with each other ... The siege of Damascus in 1148 CE was the final act of the Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE). Lasting a mere four days from 24 to 28 July, the siege by a combined western European army was not successful, and the Crusade petered out with its leaders returning home more bitter and angry with each other than the Muslim enemy. Additional crusades would follow, but the myth of invincibility of the western knights was shattered forever at the debacle of Damascus.

The Second Crusade was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia, which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Edessa was an important commercial and cultural centre and had been in Christian hands since the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). However, when Pope Eugenius III (r. 1145-1153 CE) formally called for a crusade on 1 December 1145 CE, the goals of the campaign were put somewhat vaguely as a broad appeal for the achievements of the First Crusade and Christians and holy relics in the Levant to be protected.



























• (Article by Mark Cartwright)
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Tomb of Ramesses V. Valley of the Kings, Egypt, Tomb KV9. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...
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Tomb of Ramesses V. Valley of the Kings, Egypt, Tomb KV9. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by GoShows) Tomb of Ramesses V. Valley of the Kings, Egypt, Tomb KV9.




















• (Image by GoShows)
Paestum, also known by its original Greek name as Poseidonia, was a Greek colony founded on the ...
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Paestum, also known by its original Greek name as Poseidonia, was a Greek colony founded on the west coast of Italy, some 80 km south of modern-day Naples. Prospering as a trade centre it was conquered first by the Lucanians and then, with the new Latin name of Paestum, the city became ... Paestum, also known by its original Greek name as Poseidonia, was a Greek colony founded on the west coast of Italy, some 80 km south of modern-day Naples. Prospering as a trade centre it was conquered first by the Lucanians and then, with the new Latin name of Paestum, the city became an important Roman colony in the 3rd century BCE. Today it is one of the most visited archaeological sites in the world due to its three excellently preserved large Greek temples.

In the 7th century BCE a second wave of Greek colonization occurred in Magna Graecia and, in c. 600 BCE, colonists from Sybaris in southern Italy founded the colony or city-state (polis) of Poseidonia (meaning sacred to Poseidon) at a spot chosen for its fertile plain, land access through the Lucanian hills, and sea port. According to the ancient historian Strabo, the colonists first built fortifications on the coast before later moving inland to build their city proper. The colony prospered so that by the 6th century BCE there was an important sanctuary (Foce del Sele) and monumental temples dedicated to the Greek goddesses Hera and Athena. •

























• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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Colosseum Hypogeum. The Hypogeum is the substructure of the Colosseum. It was built approximately ...
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Colosseum Hypogeum. The Hypogeum is the substructure of the Colosseum. It was built approximately 10 years after the inauguration of the Colosseum by Emperor Domitian, 1st century CE, Rome, Italy. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Colosseum Rome ... Colosseum Hypogeum. The Hypogeum is the substructure of the Colosseum. It was built approximately 10 years after the inauguration of the Colosseum by Emperor Domitian, 1st century CE, Rome, Italy. •

























• (Image by Colosseum Rome Tickets)
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The River Ganges, also known as the Ganga, flows 2,700 km from the Himalaya mountains to the Bay ...
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The River Ganges, also known as the Ganga, flows 2,700 km from the Himalaya mountains to the Bay of Bengal in northern India and Bangladesh. Regarded as sacred by Hindus, the river is personified as the goddess Ganga in ancient texts and art. Ritual bathing in the Ganges was and is an important ... The River Ganges, also known as the Ganga, flows 2,700 km from the Himalaya mountains to the Bay of Bengal in northern India and Bangladesh. Regarded as sacred by Hindus, the river is personified as the goddess Ganga in ancient texts and art. Ritual bathing in the Ganges was and is an important part of Hindu pilgrimage and the ashes of the cremated are often spread across her waters.

Described in the Mahabharata as the 'best of rivers, born of all the sacred waters', the Ganges is personified as the goddess Ganga. Ganga's mother is Mena and her father is Himavat, the personification of the Himalaya mountains. In one myth Ganga marries King Sanatanu but the relationship comes to a shattering end when the goddess is discovered to have drowned her own children. In the MahabharataGanga is the mother of Bhishma and in some myths Skanda (Karttikeya), the Hindu god of war, is her son with Agni, the god of fire. •


























• (Article by Mark Cartwright || Photo by Dennis Jarvis)
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Persian Archers at Darius' palace at Susa. Exhibited in Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches ...
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Persian Archers at Darius' palace at Susa. Exhibited in Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by mshamma) Persian Archers at Darius' palace at Susa. Exhibited in Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin.




















• (Image by mshamma)
Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes ...
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Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and Orkney. The name derives from the Roman word "Scotti" which designated an Irish tribe who invaded the region and established the kingdom of Dal Riata. ... Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and Orkney. The name derives from the Roman word "Scotti" which designated an Irish tribe who invaded the region and established the kingdom of Dal Riata. A claim has also been made, however, that the land is named after Scota, daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who married the Celt Erimon son of Mil and settled in the land which came to be known as Scotland.

Prior to this, the land north of Hadrian’s Wall was known by the Romans as Caledonia and, in Scots Gaelic, as Alba. The precise meaning of these names and their etymology remains a subject of debate, though "rocky land" has been offered as a likely candidate for Caledonia and "white" is the direct translation of Alba. While it is clear that "Alba" once referred to the whole of Great Britain, the theory that it referenced the white cliffs of Dover is disputed. The early Scots referred to the kingdom of the Picts as "Alba" and said kingdom, in the north of Scotland, was, of course, nowhere near Dover of Britain.


























• (Article by Joshua J. Mark || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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On this day in 14 CE: After ruling for 44 years, the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus, dies. ...
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On this day in 14 CE: After ruling for 44 years, the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus, dies. His stepson Tiberius is his successor. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Till Niermann) On this day in 14 CE: After ruling for 44 years, the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus, dies. His stepson Tiberius is his successor. •




























• (Image by Till Niermann)
The Clouds is a comedy written c. 423 BCE by the Greek playwright Aristophanes (c. 448 BCE – ...
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The Clouds is a comedy written c. 423 BCE by the Greek playwright Aristophanes (c. 448 BCE – c. 385 BCE). A failure at the Dionysia competition, finishing third out of three, it was revised later in 418 BCE but never produced in the author’s lifetime. The play as it now appears is believed ... The Clouds is a comedy written c. 423 BCE by the Greek playwright Aristophanes (c. 448 BCE – c. 385 BCE). A failure at the Dionysia competition, finishing third out of three, it was revised later in 418 BCE but never produced in the author’s lifetime. The play as it now appears is believed to be the revised version.

In The Clouds a familiar theme reappears. As in another Aristophanes play, The Wasps, a troubled traditional father is pitted against his citified young son; the old versus the new. Strepsiades, the father, is an old farmer who had married well beyond his means and whose son, Pheidippides, has an affinity for horses. Unfortunately, the son has accumulated a large debt which the father cannot repay. In an attempt to avoid facing his creditors, the old man goes to a nearby school run by Socrates - The Thinkery - to learn how to argue, making a wrong argument right. Although the father fails miserably as a student, he is able to convince his son to attend the school. In the end, the young Pheidippides learns well enough to even defend the beating of his own father.






















• (Article by Donald L. Wasson || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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The Queen of the Night (Burney Relief). The figure could be an aspect of the goddess Ishtar, Mesopotamian ...
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The Queen of the Night (Burney Relief). The figure could be an aspect of the goddess Ishtar, Mesopotamian goddess of sexual love and war, or Ishtar's sister and rival, the goddess Ereshkigal who ruled over the Underworld, or the demoness Lilitu, known in the Bible as Lilith. The plaque ... The Queen of the Night (Burney Relief). The figure could be an aspect of the goddess Ishtar, Mesopotamian goddess of sexual love and war, or Ishtar's sister and rival, the goddess Ereshkigal who ruled over the Underworld, or the demoness Lilitu, known in the Bible as Lilith. The plaque probably stood in a shrine.

Old Babylonian era, 1800-1750 BCE, from southern Iraq (place of excavation is unknown), Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London)

























• (Image by Osama S.M. Amin)
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The Tholos temple of Delphi, c. 580 BCE and originally with 20 columns. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...
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The Tholos temple of Delphi, c. 580 BCE and originally with 20 columns. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Kufoleto) The Tholos temple of Delphi, c. 580 BCE and originally with 20 columns. •



















• (Image by Kufoleto)
Bust of a wealthy woman from the Eastern Roman Empire. She wears earrings and her hair is fashionably ...
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Bust of a wealthy woman from the Eastern Roman Empire. She wears earrings and her hair is fashionably dressed. 193-235 CE. (The Museum of Ancient Cultures, Macquarie University, Sydney) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Image by Liana Miate) Bust of a wealthy woman from the Eastern Roman Empire. She wears earrings and her hair is fashionably dressed. 193-235 CE. (The Museum of Ancient Cultures, Macquarie University, Sydney) •























• (Image by Liana Miate)
The navy in ancient India carried out three roles: it was used to transport troops to distant battlefields, ...
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The navy in ancient India carried out three roles: it was used to transport troops to distant battlefields, participate in actual warfare, and was primarily meant for protecting the kingdom’s trade on sea and navigable rivers and the maritime trade routes. The lucrative and highly ... The navy in ancient India carried out three roles: it was used to transport troops to distant battlefields, participate in actual warfare, and was primarily meant for protecting the kingdom’s trade on sea and navigable rivers and the maritime trade routes. The lucrative and highly developed trade with Egypt, West Asia, Greece, and Rome led to the growth of navies along India’s west coast facing the Arabian Sea, and many dynasties ruling in various parts of India also maintained navies to protect the trade being conducted through huge rivers such as the Ganga.

On the east coast facing the Bay of Bengal maritime activities led to colonizing expeditions to Southeast Asia. The navies of the South Indian powers were geared towards launching invasions in Sri Lanka, separated from India by the Palk Straits. The warships were used in battles which, compared to land battles, remained low in proportion. The ancient Indians preferred to fight on land, and fights on sea were not given much importance, except in a few cases where destroying the enemy navy became crucial. •

























• (Article by Dr Avantika Lal || Photos belong to their respective owners)
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The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, also known as the Olympieion, was completed by Roman ...
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The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, also known as the Olympieion, was completed by Roman Emperor Hadrian in 131 CE. Its unusually tall columns and ambitious layout made the temple one of the largest ever built in the ancient world. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ... The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, also known as the Olympieion, was completed by Roman Emperor Hadrian in 131 CE. Its unusually tall columns and ambitious layout made the temple one of the largest ever built in the ancient world.






















• (Image by George Rex)
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The Muryangsujeon (Murangsu-jn) hall, part of the Buseoksa (Pusk-sa) temple complex, Gyeongsangbuk-do ...
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The Muryangsujeon (Murangsu-jn) hall, part of the Buseoksa (Pusk-sa) temple complex, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, South Korea . Buddhist temples were first constructed at the site in the 7th century CE but the hall dates to the Goryeo (Koryo) period (918-1392 CE). It is one of the oldest ... The Muryangsujeon (Murangsu-jn) hall, part of the Buseoksa (Pusk-sa) temple complex, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, South Korea . Buddhist temples were first constructed at the site in the 7th century CE but the hall dates to the Goryeo (Koryo) period (918-1392 CE). It is one of the oldest wooden structures in Korea. •
























• (Image by ko:Excretion)
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